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Reasons for the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottomans had ruled over the vast territories of the Empire for as long as six centuries. However, in the course of time there were several reasons that contributed to the gradual decline and collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Internal and external factors played a key role in the fall of the Ottoman dynasty rule.

The revolts and stagnation period during the Ottoman reign laid the foundation of the decline of the long-lasting Ottoman rule. During the stagnation period, there was political and economic unrest in the Empire. The expansion of the Ottomans into Europe was restricted by the Battle of Vienna in 1683. It was a major set-back for the ambitious Ottomans.

Of the major causes that affected the smooth functioning of the Empire's activities was the death of the Suleiman the Magnificent, the famous Ottoman Empire sultan. The Empire post his death was in utter chaos as far as the management of the Empire was concerned. After Suleiman's death, the Empire suffered at the hands of the increasing corruption which had become rampant throughout the territory of the Ottomans.

The Ottomans struggled to keep a control over the vast Empire. Also, the Ottoman army found it very difficult to invade and capture new territories and expand the boundaries of the Empire without the guidance of capable leader. These factors adversely affected the economic condition of the Empire. Another internal problem which the Ottomans had to face after the demise of Suleiman was that the Janissaries had started demanding more pay. They had become a hereditary class and had realized their importance. They soon began to accumulate wealth and power. It was in 1826 that they were disbanded by the Ottoman sultan, Mahumad II.

External factors too had an impact on the Ottoman Empire. During those days, the Ottomans dominated the trade with the East. The monopoly of the Ottomans had forced the Europeans to search for new sea routes to reach Asia. The Portuguese had discovered new spice route around Africa to India in the Asian region.

The Spanish Empire brought large quantities of gold and silver to Europe. Thos resulted in inflation and other economic problems for the Empire. The Ottomans also had troubles as far its military was concerned. The Ottoman military suffered because of lack of technological upgradation.

The Industrial Revolution brought changes in technology which was used by countries like England to fight wars. The technological advances gave an upper hand to countries like England in situations like war. The Ottomans however, did not have a social structure to adjust to the free-market capitalism vital to build factories. Other problem Ottomans faced was the shortage of crucial supplies of coal and other necessary commodities. All these factors led to the collapse of the Empire.

In the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, Turkey was defeated by Spanish and Venetians. It was after this battle that the West realized that the might Ottoman Empire can be defeated. The Russo- Turkish wars during the 18th century further deepened the problems and by 19th century, Turkey was termed as the Sick Man of Europe.

The Arab revolt played a major role in the decline of the Empire. The Treaty of Sevres brought an end to the Ottoman dynasty. Turkey was divided into independent states after the victory of Turkish Nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk during the post World War I period. Thus, all these aspects were responsible for the collapse of the powerful Ottoman Empire.

This site covers all areas Ottoman Empire History Facts. Besides the popular Ottoman topics like rise and fall, leaders, society, economy, Inventions, Religion, it also covers several other areas like comparison with other empires.

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