On the battlefield as well, the Ottomans gradually lagged behind the Europeans in terms of military technology as the innovation that fed the Empire's forceful expansion became subdued by growing religious and intellectual conservatism.
One thing which needs to be made a note of is that the 17th century was not simply an era of stagnation and decline, but also a key period in which the Ottoman state and its structures began to adapt to new pressures and new realities both internally as well as externally.
The Empire gradually reached the end of its ability to effectively conduct an assertive, expansionist policy against its European rivals and it was to be forced to adopt an essentially defensive strategy.
Stagnation and reform (1683-1827) - During this period much territory in the Balkans was surrendered to Austria. Certain areas of the Empire, such as Egypt and Algeria, became independent and subsequently came under the influence of Britain and France.
In the 18th century, centralized authority paved way to varying degrees of provincial autonomy enjoyed by local governors and leaders. A series of wars were fought between the Russian and Ottoman empires from the 18th to the 19th century. By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire was referred to as the "sick man" by the Europeans.
The long period of Ottoman stagnation could be typically characterized as an era of failed reforms. In the latter part of this period, however, there were educational and technological reforms. Further, some tentative reforms were also enacted like for instance taxes were lowered and attempts to improve the image of the Ottoman state were also experimented with.
Decline and modernization (1828-1908) - The Decline of the Ottoman Empire can be attributed to the failure of its economic structure, the size of the Empire created practical difficulties integrating its diverse regions economically. Additionally, the Empire's communication technology was also not sufficiently developed to reach all territories.
In many ways, the circumstances surrounding the Ottoman Empire's fall closely paralleled those surrounding the Decline of the Roman Empire, like the ongoing tensions between the Empire's different ethnic groups, and the various governments' inability to deal with these tensions.
The Ottoman Empire, finally, came to an end, as a regime under an imperial monarchy, on November 1, 1922. It formally ended, as a de jure state, on July 24, 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne. Finally, it was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey which was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923.
Thus, the Ottoman Empire's timeline was a typical one characterized initially by gaining a strong foothold to becoming powerful by annexing additional territories subsequently followed by a period of revolts, stagnation which finally ends in death of one of the longest and the most powerful Empires of history.