Administration and political upheavals are a part of any civilization and the Ottoman Empire was no different. If one commented on the governance of the Ottoman states, it is nothing worth specializing in considering the fact that it was an extremely simple state of division and affairs. However, the political uprisings and the conflict between the military and the civil administrations are surely interesting.
Division of the Government
Thankfully, the Ottoman cannot be credited with the dubious distinction of giving bureaucracy a chance in their administration. The military administration was there to oversee any administrative delays in the civil government and would warn it about the consequences. Fear of punishment and demotion made the system work; however it cannot be called as repressive.
For once, it seemed that the main aim of the government was to preserve Muslim interests and that is when the Turkish began to feel marginalized. The Sultan was what the modern countries would compare to it as the president of the Empire. However, effective participation of the civil society made sure that the Sultan could not do as he pleased.
At some points of time in the history of the Ottoman Empire, the Sultan was also usurped of its powers when it tried to overrule the popular sentiment of the masses. The dynasty as a whole was revered the world over because of the sheer size and area of influence that the Empire wielded back then. It was unparalleled anywhere in the world and did not come up with any major political setbacks.
Over all, it can be said that the government was a fully functional and effective administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Caliphate seems to have originated from this government system which can be compared to the modern day PMO or Prime Minister's Office.
Heirloom in Ottoman Empire
As it was the case elsewhere in the world, sons of the Sultanate were considered to be the future rulers of the region. However, it was seen to it that the heirs received right education and military training to ensure that the throne went to the worthy only. The Mughal Empire seems to have copied a lot from this administrative system; the ruler was not only the one issuing diktats, but the group of ministers would ensure that political order was maintained along with law and order. It was on the basis of his advisors that the Sultan was to rule and function.