When you talk about Ottoman Empire Economics, you can describe it in different ways. Here we take the easier approach which will help you understand it better. let's start with the city of Istanbul which was one of the major points of trade between the West and the East. The caravans as well as ships would carry silk, porcelain, spices and tea. These were the main items of trade.
Things traded from the Black Sea and Russia would include furs, amber and grains and from Europe came mirrors and drugs. The Geoan and Vienitian ships carried the goods off to Europe. The Ottomans had also inherited the Seljuk ccaravan stops which ran around 25 miles apart which were on the main routes of trade and this helped in protecting caravan trade. The Empire also had a strong navy which helped in dealing with pirates.
The state also supervised the Ottoman Empire economics which concluded commerce, regulations and taxes which was present almost on every single transaction. There were licenses which were needed by the sea captains, merchants and other people in business. Once an employee would leave a company the government would be notified. Markets had kadi's who was the power to punish people who would cheat the consumers. The profit was also constrained to only 10 per cent and the government went to great lengths to make sure that trade was fair and trade routes were secure.
The exports would be controlled very tightly and permission was required from the government to embark on foreign trade. The main items which would be exported consisted of skins, wool and leather. The items which the military required were not allowed to be exported. The leaders also welcomed with open arms immigrants in the Empire. In Turkey almost everyone was engaged in some trade or the other and the sultans even learned trade.
Now comes the part about taxes in Ottoman Empire economics. The taxes in the Ottoman Empire economics weren't really uniform. The Muslims were taxed with tithes and non Muslims had to pay the toll tax. Various taxes on everyday life were also present. Two treasuries were present. One which was for the Ottoman government and the second one was for the sultan. A fifth of the booty went to the sultan, all land was owned by him excepting mosques and he also received a 10 per cent death tax. There were official registers which were also kept.